The report shows how public funding for agricultural research and development (R&D) has declined markedly in recent decades. As the authors note, major competitors—most notably China—have not reduced their spending on agricultural R&D, and their agricultural productivity growth continues. The authors call for a doubling of total funding for agricultural R&D over the next 5–10 years. They cite this period as a crucial time to reposition the U.S. food and agricultural research and innovation system to address the changing scientific and market realities and note the related implications for food safety, nutrition, health, the agricultural workforce, and rural and community development. By Philip G. Pardey, Julian M. Alston and Connie Chan-Kang. 58 pages. April 2013.